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Quote of the Month

What I love about Juneteenth is that even in that extended wait, we still find something to celebrate. Even though the story has never been tidy, and Black folks have had to march and fight for every inch of our freedom, our story is nonetheless one of progress.

~Michelle Obama



News of the Month

On the eve of January 1, 1863, the first Watch Night services took place. On that night, enslaved and free African Americans gathered in churches and private homes all across the country awaiting news that the Emancipation Proclamation had taken effect. At the stroke of midnight, prayers were answered as all enslaved people in the Confederate States were declared legally free. Union soldiers, many of whom were Black, marched onto plantations and across cities in the south reading small copies of the Emancipation Proclamation spreading the news of freedom. As Union troops advanced through Confederate states they enforced the Emancipation Proclamation and freed enslaved men, women and children. As communities were freed from slavery, celebrations would break out, often known as jubilees. These jubilees followed the advance of the Union army and occurred at various dates throughout the southern US.

But not everyone in Confederate territory would immediately be free. Even though the Emancipation Proclamation took effect in 1863, it could not be implemented in places still under Confederate control. As a result, in the westernmost Confederate state of Texas, enslaved people would not be free until much later. Texas had experienced no large-scale fighting or significant presence of Union troops and so slavery there had continued. Many slavers from outside the Lone Star State had moved there, viewing it as a safe haven for slavery. Freedom finally came on June 19, 1865, when some 2,000 Union troops arrived in Galveston Bay, Texas. The army announced that the more than 250,000 enslaved people in the state were free by executive decree: The people of Texas are informed that, in accordance with a proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This day came to be known as Juneteenth by the newly freed people in Texas. (The holiday’s name is a combination of the month of June and the 19th day.)

Juneteenth marks our country’s second independence day. Although it has long been celebrated in the African American community, this monumental event remains largely unknown to most Americans. Early celebrations involved prayer and family gatherings, and later included annual pilgrimages to Galveston by former enslaved people and their families. It was also as important politically as it was culturally. Rallying the communities politically with voting instruction and education were vital to the survival of the new freedoms. Early celebrators were hampered by segregation laws which forbade freed slaves from using public parks and areas for their celebrations. In response, black communities across Texas would organize collections and pool funds to buy plots of land which would then be used for celebrations. In 1872, a group of African American ministers and businessmen in Houston purchased 10 acres of land and created Emancipation Park which was intended to hold the city’s annual Juneteenth celebration. In 1898 an estimated 30,000 men, women and children met at Booker T Washington park in Limestone County, Texas for the Juneteenth celebrations.

The early 20th century saw a rapid decline in popularity for the celebration. The Jim Crow laws in the south made black people second class citizens which negatively affected the celebrations. The Great Depression was another factor in the decline of Juneteenth. As work opportunities dried up the priority of taking a day off for Juneteenth became less and less of an option for working families. Beginning in the 1930s a revival of sorts for the holiday began to take shape. The annual Texas State Fair became a focal point for the celebrations. In 1936, an estimated 150,000-200,000 people joined celebrations.

From 1940 through 1970, in the second wave of the Great Migration, more than five million African Americans left Texas, Louisiana and other parts of the South for the North and the West Coast. With them Juneteenth celebrations were brought from Texas to New York, Los Angeles and other major cities. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s saw another revival of Juneteenth celebrations. As many black Americans tied the event to their struggle for equality, many protesters and activists began wearing Juneteenth buttons.

In 1980, Texas became the first state to designate Juneteenth as a holiday. Several other states followed suit over the years. By 2019, 47 states and the District of Columbia recognized the day in some form. In the wake of the nationwide protests against police brutality in 2020, the push for federal recognition of Juneteenth gained new momentum, and Congress quickly pushed through legislation in the summer of 2021. On June 17, 2021, President Biden signed the bill into law, making Juneteenth the 11th holiday recognized by the federal government. The law went into effect immediately, and the first federal Juneteenth holiday was celebrated the next day. (The holiday was observed on June 18, as June 19 fell on a Saturday.)

Today, Juneteenth is a much more public observance, with people of all races and cultures joining the festivities and remembrances. It is celebrated in a variety of ways throughout the US and the world, but consistent themes are an emphasis on family, freedom, activism and resilience. Most communities celebrate with food, often a barbeque. There are historic-themed performances, readings of the emancipation proclamation and of contemporary and historical black authors and public figures, lectures, exhibitions and educational displays on African American culture and history, picnics, rodeos, street fairs, cookouts, family reunions, park parties, historical reenactments, blues festivals and Miss Juneteenth contests and poetry readings. You might also see African drumming and dancing. The color red is an important symbol of the sacrifices made in the past, and many people wear red and bring red side dishes to the feast, like red beans, watermelon and red soda. Juneteenth is seen by many as an opportunity to instill pride in and to celebrate aspects of African American heritage and culture. Educational events are also commonly linked with voter registration drives, an important tool in furthering equality.

Juneteenth is the oldest celebrated commemoration of the ending of slavery in the US. With the principles of self-determination, citizenship and democracy magnifying their hopes and dreams, Texans held fast to the promise of true liberty for all. From its Galveston origin in 1865, the observance of June 19th as the African American Emancipation Day has spread across the US and beyond. Today Juneteenth commemorates African American freedom and emphasizes education and achievement. It is a day, a week, and in some areas, a month marked with celebrations, guest speakers, picnics and family gatherings. It is a time for reflection and rejoicing. It is a time for assessment, self-improvement and for planning the future. Its growing popularity signifies a level of maturity and dignity in America long overdue. In cities across the country, people of all races, nationalities and religions join hands to acknowledge a period in our history that shaped and continues to influence our society today.





Then and Now

June is LGBTQ+ Pride Month, in commemoration of the Stonewall riots.

then and now button   06/01/1813 - Capt. James Lawrence, commander of the US frigate Chesapeake, said "Don't give up the ship" during a losing battle with a British frigate.

then and now button   06/01/1958 - Charles de Gaulle became premier of France.

then and now button   06/01/1967 - The Beatles released their album, Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.

then and now button   06/02/1692 - Salem Witch Trials began: For two years, people in the Massachusetts Bay Colony were accused of witchcraft. Subsequently, hearings and trials were conducted; some people were found guilty and were sentenced to death.

then and now button   06/02/1924 - Congress granted US citizenship to all American Indians.

then and now button   06/02/1953 - Queen Elizabeth II was crowned queen of Britain after the death of her father, King George VI.

then and now button   06/02/1966 - The US space probe Surveyor 1 landed on the moon and began transmitting detailed photographs of the lunar surface.

then and now button   06/02/1987 - President Reagan announced the nomination of economist Alan Greenspan to succeed Paul Volcker as chairman of the Fed.

then and now button   06/03/1621 - The Dutch West India Company received a charter for New Netherlands, now known as New York.

then and now button   06/03/1888 - Ernest Lawrence Thayer's poem Casey at the Bat was first published in the San Francisco Daily Examiner.

then and now button   06/03/1965 - Astronaut Edward White became the first American to walk in space during the flight of Gemini 4.

then and now button   06/03/1989 - Iran's spiritual leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, died.

then and now button   06/04/1892 - The Sierra Club incorporated in San Francisco.

then and now button   06/04/1937 - Oklahoma City grocer Sylvan Goldman invented and patented the world's first grocery cart with wheels.

then and now button   06/04/1939 - The SS St. Louis, carrying more than 900 Jewish refugees from Germany, was turned away from the Florida coast.

then and now button   06/04/1942 - The WWII Battle of Midway began.

then and now button   06/04/1947 - The House of Representatives overwhelmingly approved the Taft-Hartley Act.

then and now button   06/04/1947 - The classic film Miracle on 34th Street opened. It received a B rating as "morally objectionable" because Maureen O'Hara is shown in a sympathetic light as a divorcee.

then and now button   06/04/1989 - A series of student-led protests throughout China involving individuals who were seeking social, political and economic reforms resulted in a crackdown by the Chinese government, when the military confronted a large group of demonstrators in Tiananmen Square, Beijing.

then and now button   06/05/1794 - Congress passed the Neutrality Act, which prohibited Americans from enlisting in the service of a foreign power.

then and now button   06/05/1917 - About 10 million American men began registering for the draft in WWI.

then and now button   06/05/1933 - The US went off the gold standard.

then and now button   06/05/1947 - In a speech at Harvard, Secretary of State George Marshall outlined an aid program for Europe, later called the Marshall Plan.

then and now button   06/05/1967 - War erupted in the Mideast as Israel raided Egyptian military targets. Syria, Jordan and Iraq entered the conflict.

then and now button   06/05/1968 - Sirhan Bishara Sirhan assassinated Senator Robert Kennedy who had just claimed victory in California's Democratic presidential primary.

then and now button   06/05/1981 - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that five men in Los Angeles had come down with a rare kind of pneumonia. They were the first recognized cases of AIDS.

then and now button   06/06/1844 - The Young Men's Christian Association began in London.

then and now button   06/06/1933 - The first drive-in movie theater opened in Camden NJ.

then and now button   06/06/1934 - The Securities and Exchange Commission was established.

then and now button   06/06/1944 - The WWII D-Day Invasion of Europe took place as Allied forces stormed the beaches of Normandy. 160,000 Allied troops attacked along a 50-mile stretch of Normandy beaches defended by German forces. Despite suffering more than 9,000 casualties, by day's end the Allies had gained a foothold in Normandy.

then and now button   06/06/1966 - Black activist James Meredith was shot and wounded as he walked along a Mississippi highway to encourage black voter registration.

then and now button   06/06/2001 - Democrats formally assumed control of the US Senate after James Jeffords switch from the Republican Party to an independent.

then and now button   06/06/2024 - The 80th anniversary of the D-Day landings along the Normandy coast during WWII.

then and now button   06/07/1776 - Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposed to the Continental Congress a resolution calling for a Declaration of Independence.

then and now button   06/07/1917 - Gwendolyn Brooks, who became the first African-American to win the Pulitzer Prize in 1950 (for Annie Allen), was born in Topeka KS.

then and now button   06/07/1942 - The Battle of Midway: After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese Imperial Navy and the US Navy faced off from June 2nd to June 7th over Japan's planned invasion of Midway Island. Aided by intelligence efforts, the US Navy was able to score a decisive victory in the Pacific Theater during WWII.

then and now button   06/07/2024 - Boone Day

then and now button   06/08/0632 - The prophet Mohammed died.

then and now button   06/08/1867 - Mark Twain embarked on a journey through Europe to the Holy Land that served as his inspiration for The Innocents Abroad.

then and now button   06/08/1967 - Israeli forces raided the Liberty, a Navy ship stationed in the Mediterranean, killing 34 US servicemen. Israel called it a tragic mistake.

then and now button   06/08/1982 - President Reagan became the first American president to address a joint session of the British Parliament.

then and now button   06/09/68CE - Roman Emperor Nero committed suicide.

then and now button   06/10/1935 - Alcoholics Anonymous began in Akron OH.

then and now button   06/10/1943 - Lasalo Biro of Hungary invented the ball point pen.

then and now button   06/11/1776 - The Continental Congress formed a committee to draft a Declaration of Independence from Britain.

then and now button   06/11/1966 - Janis Joplin sang onstage with Big Brother and the Holding Company for the first time at the Avalon Ballroom in San Francisco.

then and now button   06/11/2001 - Oklahoma executed the Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh, by injection.

then and now button   06/11/2024 - Shavuot begins at sunset and ends the evening of 06/13 – Judaism

then and now button   06/12/1776 - Virginia's colonial legislature became the first to adopt a Bill of Rights.

then and now button   06/12/1898 - Philippine Nationalists declared independence from Spain.

then and now button   06/12/1929 - Anne Frank was born in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany.

then and now button   06/12/1963 - An unknown assailant fatally shot civil rights leader Medgar Evers, field secretary for the NAACP, in front of his home in Jackson, MI. In 1994, a jury convicted Byron De La Beckwith of murdering Evers and sentenced him to life in prison. He died in 2001.

then and now button   06/12/1967 - The US Supreme Court struck down state laws prohibiting interracial marriages.

then and now button   06/12/1987 - President Reagan, during a visit to a still divided Berlin, publicly demanded that Russian leader Mikhail Gorbachev "Tear down this wall!"

then and now button   06/13/1888 - Congress created the Department of Labor.

then and now button   06/13/1900 - China's Boxer Rebellion, targeting foreigners and Chinese Christians, erupted into full-scale violence.

then and now button   06/13/1966 - The Supreme Court issued its landmark Miranda decision, ruling that police must inform criminal suspects of their constitutional rights prior to questioning.

then and now button   06/13/1967 - President Johnson nominated Solicitor-General Thurgood Marshall to become the first black justice on the US Supreme Court.

then and now button   06/13/1971 - The New York Times began publishing the Pentagon Papers, a secret study of America's involvement in Vietnam.

then and now button   06/14/1775 - The US Army began.

then and now button   06/14/1777 - The Continental Congress in Philadelphia adopted the Stars and Stripes as the national flag.

then and now button   06/14/1922 - Warren G. Hardin became the first president heard on radio when Baltimore station WEAR broadcast his speech.

then and now button   06/14/1943 - The Supreme Court ruled school children could not be forced to salute the flag of the US if doing so conflicted with their religious beliefs.

then and now button   06/14/1954 - President Eisenhower signed an order adding the words "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance.

then and now button   06/14/2024 - Flag Day

then and now button   06/14/2024 - The Hajj begins at sunset (through 06/19) – Muslim

then and now button   06/15/1215 - King John put his seal to the Magna Carta (the Great Charter) at Runnymede, England, granting his barons more liberty.

then and now button   06/15/1520 - Pope Leo X threatened to excommunicate Martin Luther if he did not recant his religious beliefs.

then and now button   06/15/1775 - The Second Continental Congress voted unanimously to appoint George Washington head of the Continental Army.

then and now button   06/15/1844 - Charles Goodyear received a patent for his process to strengthen rubber.

then and now button   06/15/1864 - Secretary of War Edwin Stanton signed an order establishing a military burial ground, which became Arlington National Cemetery.

then and now button   06/15/1994 - Israel and the Vatican established full diplomatic relations.

then and now button   06/15/2024 - Waqf al Arafa begins at sunset and ends tomorrow evening – Muslim

then and now button   06/16/1858 - In a speech in Springfield, Senate candidate Abraham Lincoln said the slavery issue had to be resolved. He declared, "A house divided against itself cannot stand."

then and now button   06/16/1903 - Ford Motor Company incorporated.

then and now button   06/16/1963 - The world's first female space traveler, Valentina Tereshkova, launched into orbit by the Soviet Union aboard Vostok Six.

then and now button   06/16/2024 - Father's Day

then and now button   06/16/2024 - Eid al-Adha, Feast of the Sacrifice, begins at sunset (through 06/19) – Muslim

then and now button   06/17/1775 - The Revolutionary War Battle of Bunker Hill took place near Boston. (The battle actually occurred on Breed's Hill.)

then and now button   06/17/1856 - The Republican Party begin its first convention in Philadelphia.

then and now button   06/17/1885 - The Statue of Liberty arrived in NYC.

then and now button   06/17/1928 - Amelia Earhart was the first woman to embark on a trans-Atlantic flight when she journeyed from Newfoundland to Wales.

then and now button   06/17/1955 - The first theme park of Walt Disney Studios was opened in Anaheim, California. Disneyland was built on former orange groves and brought a lot of economic growth to Southern California. Walt Disney wanted to create a place where all families could come and see stories come to life. Today, this innovative theme park is visited from people around the world.

then and now button   06/17/1963 - The Supreme Court struck down rules requiring the recitation of the Lord's Prayer or reading of Biblical verses in public schools.

then and now button   06/17/1972 - Five men were arrested carrying eavesdropping equipment in the Watergate office building, headquarters of the Democratic National Committee. The arrest led to Nixon’s resignation and the conviction of several White House staffers.

then and now button   06/17/2024 - Bunker Hill Day

then and now button   06/18/1746 - Samuel Johnson accepted an offer of £1,575 from a group of London booksellers for the projected 40,000-word Johnson Dictionary.

then and now button   06/18/1793 - Marie Antoinette went to the guillotine.

then and now button   06/18/1812 - The US declared war against Britain.

then and now button   06/18/1815 - Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated at Waterloo.

then and now button   06/18/1873 - The government fined Susan B. Anthony $100 for attempting to vote in the 1872 election. The fine was never paid.

then and now button   06/18/1980 - The Blues Brothers premiered in NYC.

then and now button   06/18/1983 - Sally Ride became the first American woman in space when the space shuttle Challenger blasted off.

then and now button   06/19/1856 - English colonists sailed from Roanoke Island NC after failing to establish England's first permanent settlement in America.

then and now button   06/19/1862 - The US territories outlawed slavery.

then and now button   06/19/1910 - The first Father's Day took place in Spokane WA.

then and now button   06/19/1917 - During WWI, King George V ordered the British royal family to dispense with German titles and surnames and took the name "Windsor."

then and now button   06/19/1934 - The government created the Federal Communications Commission.

then and now button   06/19/1953 - The US government executed Julius and Ethel Rosenberg at NY's Sing Sing Prison for conspiring to pass US atomic secrets to the Soviet Union.

then and now button   06/19/1964 - Congress approved the Civil Rights Act of 1964 after an 83-day filibuster.

then and now button   06/19/2024 - Juneteenth … a holiday celebrating the emancipation of US slaves. Originating in Galveston TX, it is now celebrated annually on the 19th of June throughout the US, with varying official recognition. It is commemorated on the anniversary date of the June 19, 1865 announcement by Union Army General Gordon Granger, proclaiming freedom from slavery in Texas.

then and now button   06/20/1837 - Queen Victoria took the British crown following the death of her uncle, King William IV.

then and now button   06/20/1893 - A jury found Lizzie Borden innocent of the ax murders of her father and stepmother.

then and now button   06/20/1963 - The US and Soviet Union signed an agreement to set up a "hot line" between the two superpowers.

then and now button   06/20/2024 - Longest day of the year

then and now button   06/20/2024 - First day of summer

then and now button   06/20/2024 - Summer Solstice – Wicca, Celtic

then and now button   06/21/1788 - The US Constitution went into effect as New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify it.

then and now button   06/22/1870 - Congress created the Department of Justice.

then and now button   06/22/1944 - President Franklin Roosevelt signed the GI Bill of Rights.

then and now button   06/22/1970 - President Nixon signed a measure lowering the voting age to 18.

then and now button   06/23/1868 - Christopher Latham Sholes received a patent for his invention, the Type-Writer.

then and now button   06/23/1947 - Congress overrode President Truman's veto of the Taft-Hartley Act.

then and now button   06/23/1969 - Earl Warren swore in Warren Burger as Chief Justice of the US.

then and now button   06/23/1972 - President Nixon signed Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972. Title IX prohibited gender discrimination in educational settings receiving federal funding.

then and now button   06/24/1314 - Scottish forces under King Robert I defeated the English in the Battle of Bannockburn.

then and now button   06/24/2022 - In its Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization decision, the US Supreme Court overturned Roe v. Wade (1973), Planned Parenthood of Southeastern PA v. Casey (1992), and Whole Woman’s Health v. Hellerstedt (2016), erasing nearly 50 years of precedent, ending the federal constitutional right to abortion in the US and setting the stage for the removal of other federal constitutional rights such as contraception and gay marriage.

then and now button   06/24/2024 - St. Jean’s Day – Vodún

then and now button   06/25/1876 - Sioux and Cheyenne Indians wiped out General George Custer and his men in the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana.

then and now button   06/25/1950 - War broke out in Korea as forces from the communist North invaded the South.

then and now button   06/26/1900 - A commission that included Dr. Walter Reed began the fight against the deadly disease yellow fever.

then and now button   06/26/1945 - Fifty countries signed the charter of the United Nations in San Francisco.

then and now button   06/26/1963 - President John Kennedy visited West Berlin, where he made his famous declaration "I am a Berliner."

then and now button   06/26/1974 - The very first UPC code scanned product hit the market ... Wrigley's Chewing Gum.

then and now button   06/26/2015 - The Supreme Court announced its decision in Obergefell v. Hodges. By one vote, the court ruled that same-sex marriage cannot be banned in the US and that all same-sex marriages must be recognized nationwide, finally granting same-sex couples equal rights to heterosexual couples under the law.

then and now button   06/27/1880 - Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. She was deaf, blind and mute from the age of 19 months as a result of scarlet fever.

then and now button   06/27/1893 - The New York stock market crashed.

then and now button   06/27/1950 - President Truman ordered the Air Force and Navy into the Korean conflict following a call from the UN for member nations to help South Korea repel an invasion from the North.

then and now button   06/27/1969 - Patrons at the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in New York's Greenwich Village, clashed with police in an incident considered the birth of the gay rights movement.

then and now button   06/27/1980 - President Carter signed legislation reviving draft registration.

then and now button   06/28/1778 - Molly Pitcher, aka Mary Ludwig Hays, carried water to American soldiers at the Revolutionary War Battle of Monmouth NJ.

then and now button   06/28/1914 - A Serb nationalist assassinated Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife, Sofia, in Sarajevo ... the event triggering World War I.

then and now button   06/28/1919 - Major Powers signed the Treaty of Versailles in France, ending WWI.

then and now button   06/28/1950 - North Korean forces captured Seoul, South Korea.

then and now button   06/28/1951 - A TV version of the radio program Amos and Andy premiered on CBS. While criticized for racial stereotyping, it was the first network TV series to feature an all-black cast.

then and now button   06/28/1969 - The Stonewall Riots were six days of spontaneous protests by members of the gay community following a police raid on the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in New York City's Greenwich Village. The riots are considered a catalyst for the modern LGBTQ rights movement.

then and now button   06/28/1978 - The Supreme Court ordered UC-Davis Medical School to admit Allan Bakke, a white man who had argued he was a victim of reverse racial discrimination.

then and now button   06/28/1996 - The Citadel voted to admit women, ending a 153-year-old men-only policy at the SC military school.

then and now button   06/28/2024 - M'Guine Sauveur table servie pour maitresse Erzulie, maitresse Tenaisse, maitresse Mambo – Vodún

then and now button   06/29/1776 - Patrick Henry became governor of the new state of Virginia.

then and now button   06/29/1946 - British authorities arrested more than 2700 Jews in Palestine in an attempt to stamp out alleged terrorism.

then and now button   06/29/1967 - Israel removed barricades separating the Old City from the Israeli sector, thus re-unifying Jerusalem.

then and now button   06/29/1972 - The Supreme Court ruled the death penalty, as then implemented, could constitute cruel and unusual punishment.

then and now button   06/29/1992 - A divided Supreme Court ruled that women have a constitutional right to abortion.

then and now button   06/29/2023 - The US Supreme Court struck down affirmative action programs at the University of North Carolina and Harvard. The conservative majority said colleges and universities can no longer take race into consideration as a specific basis for granting admission, a landmark decision overturning long-standing precedent that has benefited Black and Latino students in higher education. The Court did not ban gender consciousness in college admissions, or legacy consciousness, wealth consciousness, geographic consciousness, or athletic consciousness … only race. Further, the ruling said that US military service academies can continue to take race into consideration as a factor in admissions to further the nation’s compelling interest of diversity. Huh?

then and now button   06/30/1936 - Margaret Mitchell published Gone with the Wind in NY.

then and now button   06/30/1952 - The popular soap opera The Guiding Light made its TV debut on CBS.

then and now button   06/30/1971 - Ohio became the 38th state to approve and thus ratify the 26th Amendment to the Constitution, lowering the minimum voting age to 18.

then and now button   06/30/2023 - In a 6-3 decision in Biden v. Nebraska, the US Supreme Court blocked the Biden administration’s student loan forgiveness plan, rejecting a program aimed at delivering up to $20,000 of relief to millions of borrowers struggling with outstanding student debt, citing an overreach of authority by the President and Secretary of Education.

then and now button   06/30/2023 - In 303 Creative LLC v. Elenis, the US Supreme Court ruled 6-3 in favor of a Christian web designer in Colorado who refuses to create websites to celebrate same-sex weddings out of religious objections. The ruling - citing free speech grounds - will pierce state public accommodation laws for those businesses who sell so-called “expressive” goods and undercut longstanding non-discrimination laws. (Behind the scenes: 303 Creative does not make websites and no one ever asked for one. Colorado courts originally found that the plaintiff had not shown sufficient evidence that she had been harmed by the state's anti-discrimination policies to constitute a challenge, since "no customers had sought any services from the Company." At that point, the plaintiff included a 2016 email inquiry with a real full name and contact information to prove standing. In late June 2023, just prior to the SCOTUS ruling, a reporter contacted the person listed in the plaintiff’s 2017 affidavit, only to find that he is straight, has been married for years with a child and was working as a web designer for CNN at the time of his supposed request. All of which raises questions about how and why the legitimacy of this element in 303 Creative v. Elenis went unconfirmed for years as the case moved upward through the US court system. Apparently this was simply a vehicle to manufacture an excuse for this Supreme Court to legalize discrimination against gay people and grant a business open to the public a constitutional right to refuse to serve members of a protected class.)






Online Resource Links

then and now button   How Wobbly Is Our Democracy?The American Abyss US is polarizing faster than other democracies. The Ballad of Downward MobilityA Crisis Coming … The Twin Threats To American Democracy: (1) A Growing Movement to Refuse to Accept Defeat in an Election and (2) Policy and Election Results that Are Increasingly Less Connected to What the Public WantsAmerica’s Surprising Partisan Divide on Life Expectancy | ‘Freedom’ Means Something Different to Liberals and Conservatives. Here’s How the Definition Split - and Why That Still Matters.| Politics is personal.For elites, politics is driven by ideology. For voters, it’s not.Trust and Strengthening the Weak Points of American DemocracyDistrust in AmericaOne America is thriving; the other is stagnating. How long can this go on? America Is Growing Apart, Possibly for Good - The great “convergence” of the mid-20th century may have been an anomaly. Are we really facing a second Civil War? How ‘Stop the Steal’ Captured the American RightConspiracy theorists want to run America’s elections. These are the candidates standing in their way.Two Americas Index: Democracy deniersWhere will this political violence lead? Look to the 1850s.American Democracy Was Never Designed to Be Democratic Yes, the economy is important, but we found that election subversion attempts appear to matter more to voters than polling suggests. Donald Trump’s 2024 Campaign, in His Own Menacing Words A Warning We Are in a Five-Alarm Fire for Democracy | According to Freedom House, the US, whose aggregate score for political rights and civil liberties fell 11 points between 2010 and 2020, now falls near the middle of the free spectrum, behind Slovenia, Croatia and Mongolia. | The Looming Contest Between Two Presidents and Two Americas Why Losing Political Power Now Feels Like ‘Losing Your Country’Here Is One Way to Steal the Presidential Election In tense election year, state officials face climate of intimidation. In the GOP’s new surveillance state, everyone’s a snitch.

then and now button   At The Brink: A Series about the Threat of Nuclear Weapons in an Unstable World The Brink: If it seems alarmist to anticipate the horrifying aftermath of a nuclear attack, consider this: The US and Ukraine governments have been planning for the scenario for at least two years. The possibility of a nuclear strike, once inconceivable in modern conflict, is more likely now than at any other time since the Cold War. A nuclear weapon strikes. What happens next? (8:10) 72 Minutes Until the End of the World?The Doomsday Clock 2024: It’s 90 seconds to midnight. The Science and Security Board of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists has left the hands of the Doomsday Clock unchanged due to ominous trends that continue to point the world toward global catastrophe. (Founded in 1945 by Albert Einstein, J. Robert Oppenheimer and University of Chicago scientists who helped develop the first atomic weapons in the Manhattan Project, the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists created the Doomsday Clock two years later, using the imagery of apocalypse (midnight) and the contemporary idiom of nuclear explosion (countdown to zero) to convey threats to humanity and the planet. The Doomsday Clock is set every year by the Bulletin’s Science and Security Board in consultation with its Board of Sponsors, which includes nine Nobel laureates. The Clock has become a universally recognized indicator of the world’s vulnerability to global catastrophe caused by man-made technologies.)

then and now button   Visualizing the State of Global Debt, by Country: The debt-to-GDP ratio is a simple metric that compares a country’s public debt to its economic output. By comparing how much a country owes and how much it produces in a year, economists can measure a country’s theoretical ability to pay off its debt. The World Bank published a study showing that countries that maintained a debt-to-GDP ratio of over 77% for prolonged periods of time experienced economic slowdowns.

then and now button   What ISIS Really Wants: The Islamic State is no mere collection of psychopaths. It is a religious group with carefully considered beliefs, among them that it is a key agent of the coming apocalypse. Here’s what that means for its strategy and for how to stop it  |  ISIS Claims Responsibility, Calling Paris Attacks First of the Storm  |  Syria Iraq: The Islamic State Militant Group  |  Isis: The Inside Story  |  Frontline: The Rise of ISIS  |  Council on Foreign Relations: A Primer on ISIS  |  Cracks in ISIS Are Becoming More Clear  |  How ISIS’ Attacks Harm the Middle East Timeline: the Rise, Spread and Fall of the Islamic State

then and now button   Keeping the Shi'ites Straight Based on the opinion that no story has been more confusing for the Western news media to cover in postwar Iraq than the politics of the country's Shi'ite majority, this article provides a basic outline of Shi'ite religious history. Discusses the Sadr family (Muhammad Baqir as-Sadr, Ayatollah Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr, and Muqtada as-Sadr), Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim and other figures.

then and now button   What it’s like to live on $2 a day in the United States (PDF)

then and now button   Check out Today's Front Pages. Each day, you can see the front pages of more than 800 newspapers from around the world in their original, unedited form.

then and now button   PBS's 30 Second Candidate allows you to view more political ads than you ever knew existed. Choose the Historical Timeline link to see how political ads have changed over the years. Start with the infamous Daisy Ad that Lyndon Johnson used against Barry Goldwater. Click on Watch Johnson ads. Then click on either the QuickTime link or the Real Video link next to Daisy.

then and now button   Check out the Political Compass. The site does a good job of explaining political ideologies (although with definitions different from those I use) and gives you a chance to discover your own political philosophy.

then and now button   Law Library of Congress: North Korea: Collection of links to websites on North Korean government, politics and law. Includes legal guides, country studies and links to constitutions and branches of government (where available). Council on Foreign Relations: North Korea: Background, articles and opinion pieces about North Korea government and politics. Many of the articles focus on North Korea's nuclear program. From the Council on Foreign Relations, "an independent membership organization and a nonpartisan think tank and publisher."

then and now button   State of the Union (SOTU): The site uses an interactive timeline to provide a visual representation of prominent words in presidential State of the Union addresses by displaying significant words as "determined by comparing how frequently the word occurs in the document to how frequently it appears throughout the entire body of SOTU addresses." The Appendices section describes the statistical methods used. Also includes the full text of addresses.

then and now button   Small Town Papers: This site provides access to scanned images of recent issues of dozens of small town newspapers from throughout the United States. Newspapers are updated periodically, 2-3 weeks after publication. The site also includes a searchable archive (of articles, photos and advertisements), which covers different periods for each paper, some as far back as the 1890s. Access to the archives requires free registration.

then and now button   This website serves as a centralized location to learn about the Congressional Research Service and search for CRS reports that have been released to the public by members of Congress. (CRS Reports do not become public until a member of Congress releases the report.) Features a searchable database with more than 8,000 reports, a list of recently released reports, other collections of CRS reports and a FAQ about CRS.

then and now button   Stem Cell Research: See the official NIH resource for Stem Cell Research. In 2005, NOVA aired an overview of The Stem Cell Issue.

then and now button  Instances of the Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798 - 2020: This report lists hundreds of instances in which the United States has used its armed forces abroad in situations of military conflict or potential conflict or for other than normal peacetime purposes. It was compiled in part from various older lists and is intended primarily to provide a rough survey of past US military ventures abroad, without reference to the magnitude of the given instance noted. | Here's How Bad a Nuclear War Would Actually Be This is What It’s Like to Witness a Nuclear Explosion

then and now button   Government Product Recalls

then and now button   Homeland Security Knowledge Base

then and now button  If you're worried about retirement, try some of these sites: IRS Tax Information for Retirement PlansSocial Security Retirement PlannerRetirement Planning Resources from Smart Money

then and now button   This commercial site presents brief information about dozens of Black Inventors from the United States. Some entries include portraits and images. Also includes a searchable timeline covering 1721-1988. Does not include bibliographic information.

then and now button  Annenberg Political Fact Check: This site describes itself as a nonpartisan, nonprofit, consumer advocate for voters that aims to reduce the level of deception and confusion in US politics. The site provides original articles, with summaries and sources, analyzing factual accuracy in TV ads, debates, speeches, interviews and news releases. Searchable. From the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania.

then and now button   The State of State and Local Finances: New studies afford a state-by-state or city-by-city analysis of fiscal well being. The Year of Living Dangerously: While leaders in a growing number of states appear to believe they're serving the public good by squeezing government dry, there's little question that minimizing management carries a host of dangers that directly affect the lives of citizens.

then and now button   First Amendment Library: Provides info on Supreme Court First Amendment jurisprudence,  including rulings, arguments, briefs, historical material, commentary and press coverage.

Juneteenth 2024




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