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Quote of the Month

"One might ask why, in a galaxy of a few hundred billion stars, aliens are intent on coming to Earth at all. It would be as if every vertebrate in North America somehow felt drawn to a particular house in Peoria, Illinois. Are we really that interesting?"

~Seth Shostak (SETI)




Numbers of the Month

Astronomers engaged in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) are training their instruments on a star around 94 light years from Earth after a very strong signal was detected by a Russian telescope. An international team of researchers is now examining the radio signal and its star, HD 164595 in the hopes of determining its origin. Whenever a strong signal is detected, it's a good possibility for some nearby civilization to be detected. The signal from HD 164595 is intriguing, because it comes from the vicinity of a sun-like star, and if it's artificial, its strength is great enough that it was clearly made by a civilization with capabilities beyond those of humankind. Such a civilization would likely be Type II on the Kardashev scale. The Kardashev scale is based on the energy that that a civilization might be able to funnel for its own use. A Type II civilization would be able to harness the entirety of the energy emitted by its star, billions of billions of watts. A senior astronomer with the SETI Institute, said that it's hard to understand why anyone would want to target our solar system with a strong signal since the star system is so far away they won't have yet picked up on any TV or radar that would tell them that we're here. If it does prove to be transient and unexplained, HD 164595 could become another "Wow! signal," frustratingly tantalizing and mysterious in equal measures., 08/30/2016





Then and Now

   09/01/1864 - Atlanta fell to Union forces.

   09/01/1939 - WWII began as Nazi Germany invaded Poland.

   09/01/1942 - A federal judge in Sacramento upheld the wartime detention of Japanese-Americans as well as Japanese nationals.

   09/01/1951 - The US, Australia and New Zealand signed a mutual defense pact – ANZUS.

   09/01/1961 - The Soviet Union ended a moratorium on atomic testing with an aboveground nuclear explosion in central Asia.

   09/01/1998 - Federal legislation made airbags mandatory.

   09/02/1666 - The Great Fire of London broke out claiming thousands of homes but only a few lives.

   09/02/1789 - The US Treasury Department was established.

   09/02/1864 - Sherman occupied Atlanta.

   09/02/1901 - VP Theodore Roosevelt offered the advice: Speak softly and carry a big stick.

   09/02/1945 - Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam an independent republic.

   09/02/1945 - Japan formally surrendered in ceremonies aboard the USS Missouri, ending WWII.

   09/02/1963 - Alabama Governor George Wallace prevented the integration of Tuskegee High School by encircling the building with state troopers.

   09/02/1969 - The first ATM opened for business.

   09/02/1973 - JRR Tolkien, the author of the best-selling fantasy novels The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, died at the age of 81 in Bournemouth, England.

   09/02/1998 - A UN court handed down the first international conviction for genocide, finding Jean-Paul Akayesu, the former mayor of a small town in Rwanda, guilty of nine counts,

   09/02/2016 - VJ Day

   09/03/1777 - The American flag was flown in battle for the first time on this day in 1777, during a Revolutionary War skirmish at Cooch's Bridge, Delaware.

   09/03/1783 - The Treaty of Paris between the US and Great Britain officially ended the Revolutionary War.

   09/03/1939 - Britain and France declared war on Germany, two days after the Nazi invasion of Poland.

   09/03/1978 - The Roman Catholic Church installed Pope John Paul I as its 264th pontiff.

   09/04/476AD - The Western Roman Empire fell when Romulus Augustus, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, was deposed by Odoacer, a German barbarian who proclaimed himself king of Italy.

   09/04/1781 - Spanish settlers founded Los Angeles.

   09/04/1886 - The last American Indian warrior surrendered when Geronimo, the wiliest and most dangerous Apache warrior of his time, finally surrendered in Skeleton Canyon, Arizona.

   09/04/1951 - President Harry S. Truman's opening speech before a conference in San Francisco was broadcast across the nation, marking the first time a television program was broadcast from coast to coast. The speech focused on Truman's acceptance of a treaty that officially ended America's post-World War II occupation of Japan.

   09/04/1957 - Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus called out the National Guard to prevent nine black students from entering Central High School in Little Rock.

   09/05/1774 - In response to the British Parliament's enactment of the Coercive Acts in the American colonies, the first session of the Continental Congress convened at Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia. Fifty-six delegates from all of the colonies except Georgia drafted a declaration of rights and grievances and elected Virginian Peyton Randolph as the first president of Congress. Patrick Henry, George Washington, John Adams and John Jay were among the delegates.

   09/05/1793 - The Reign of Terror began during the French Revolution as the National Convention instituted harsh measures to repress counterrevolutionary activities.

   09/05/1836 - The Republic of Texas elected Sam Houston as president.

   09/05/1877 - After his victory at Little Bighorn, US Army forces led by Colonel Nelson Miles pursued Crazy Horse and his followers. His tribe suffered from cold and starvation, and on May 6, 1877, Crazy Horse surrendered to General George Crook at the Red Cloud Indian Agency in Nebraska. He was sent to Fort Robinson NE, where he was fatally bayoneted on this date by a US soldier after resisting confinement in a guardhouse.

   09/05/1972 - Arab guerrillas attacked the Israeli delegation at the Munich Olympic Games. They killed eleven Israelis, five guerrillas and a police officer.

   09/05/2016 - Ganesh Chaturthi – Hinduism

   09/05/2016 - Anant Chaturdashi – Hinduism

   09/05/2016 - Labor Day

   09/06/1941 - Germany ordered Jews over the age of six in German-occupied areas to wear yellow Stars of David.

   09/06/1975 - Czechoslovak tennis star Martina Navratilova, in NY for the US Open, requested political asylum.

   09/07/1901 - The Peace of Beijing ended the Boxer Rebellion in China.

   09/07/1940 - Nazi Germany began its initial blitz on London during WWII.

   09/07/1977 - The Panama Canal treaties, calling for the US to eventually turn over control of the waterway to Panama, were signed in Washington.

   09/08/1664 - The Dutch surrendered New Amsterdam to the British, who renamed it New York.

   09/08/1900 - A hurricane that killed about 6,000 people stuck Galveston TX.

   09/08/1935 - Senator Huey P. Long (The Kingfish) of Louisiana politics was shot and morally wounded. He died two days later.

   09/08/1952 - Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea was first published.

   09/08/1971 - The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts opened in Washington DC with a performance of Leonard Bernstein's Mass.

   09/08/1974 - President Ford granted an unconditional pardon to former President Nixon.

   09/09/1776 - The Second Continental Congress made the term United States official, replacing United Colonies.

   09/09/1948 - The People's Democratic Republic of Korea (North Korea) was created.

   09/09/1957 - President Eisenhower signed into law the first civil rights bill to pass Congress since Reconstruction.

   09/09/1976 - Communist Chinese leader Mao Tse-tung died in Beijing at the age of 82.

   09/09/2002 - Iraq challenged the US to produce "one piece of evidence" that it was producing weapons of mass destruction.

   09/09/2016 - National 401(k) Day

   09/09/2016 - Waqf al Arafa begins at sunset – Muslim

   09/10/1608 - John Smith became president of the Jamestown colony council in Virginia.

   09/10/1846 - Elias Howe received a patent for his sewing machine.

   09/10/1939 - Canada declared war on Nazi Germany.

   09/10/1955 - Gunsmoke premiered on CBS.

   09/10/1963 - Twenty black students entered Alabama public schools following a standoff between federal authorities and Governor George Wallace.

  09/10/1991 - The Senate Judiciary Committee opened hearings on the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the US Supreme Court.

   09/11/1962 - The Beatles made their first record for EMI – Love Me Do and P.S. I Love You.

   09/11/1973 - Chilean President Salvador Allende died in a violent military coup.

   09/11/1997 - Scots voted to create their own Parliament after 290 years of union with England.

   09/11/2001 - Terrorists flew hijacked airliners into the World Trade towers in NYC and the Pentagon in Washington. A fourth plane crashed in Pennsylvania.

   09/11/2016 - Patriot Day

   09/11/2016 - Grandparents Day

   09/11/2016 - Rastafarian New Year's Day

   09/11/2016 - Eid al-Adha, Feast of the Sacrifice, begins at sunset – Muslim

   09/12/1609 - English explorer Henry Hudson sailed into the river that now bears his name.

   09/12/1944 - During WWII, US Army troops entered Germany for the first time near Trier.

   09/12/2000 - Hillary Rodham Clinton became the only First Lady to win an election as she claimed victory in the NY Democratic Senate primary.

   09/13/1943 - Chiang Kai-shek became president of China.

   09/13/1948 - Elected to the US Senate, Republican Margaret Chase Smith of Maine became the first woman to serve in both houses of Congress.

   09/14/1814 - On this evening, Francis Scott Key stood onboard the ship Minden in Chesapeake Bay and composed the lines known as The Star-Spangled Banner.

   09/14/1940 - Congress passed the Selective Service Act, providing for the first peacetime draft in US history.

   09/15/1821 - Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador proclaimed their independence from Spain.

   09/15/1935 - The Nuremberg laws deprived German Jews of their citizenship and made the swastika the official symbol of Nazi Germany.

   09/15/1963 - A bomb went off during Sunday services at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham killing four black girls.

   09/15/2016 - September 15 through October 15 is National Hispanic Heritage Month.

   09/16/1810 - Mexico began its revolt against Spanish rule.

   09/16/1919 - The American Legion was incorporated by an act of Congress.

   09/16/1940 - Sam Rayburn of Texas became Speaker of the House.

   09/16/1940 - President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law the Selective Training and Service Act which set up the first peacetime military draft in US history.

   09/16/2016 - Mexican Independence Day

   09/16/2016 - Mayflower Day

   09/17/1787 - A majority of delegates attending the constitutional convention in Philadelphia completed and signed the Constitution of the US.

   09/17/1920 - The American Professional Football Association, a precursor of the National Football League, was formed in Canton OH.

   09/17/1939 - The Soviet Union invaded Poland, more than two weeks after Nazi Germany launched its assault.

   09/17/1978 - After meeting at Camp David, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat signed a framework for a peace treaty.

   09/17/2016 - Citizenship Day and Constitution Day (Federal law now requires all schools receiving federal funding to teach the Constitution on this day. Doesn’t that seem a little contrary to the spirit of the Constitution?)

   09/18/1850 - Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act which allowed slave owners to reclaim slaves who had escaped to other states.

   09/18/1970 - Jimmy Hendrix died in London at age 27.

   09/19/1796 - President Washington's farewell address was published.

   09/19/1912 - When feminist Rebecca West, 19, reviewed Marriage by HG Wells, 45, and called him "the old maid among novelists," Wells asked to meet her. By the next spring, they had embarked on what became a 10-year love affair.

   09/19/1957 - The US conducted its first underground nuclear test in the Nevada desert.

   09/19/1986 - Federal health officials announced that the experimental drug AZT would be made available to thousands of AIDS patients.

   09/20/1519 - Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan set out from Spain on a voyage to find a western passage to the Spice Islands in Indonesia.

   09/20/2001 - President George W. Bush gave an address to a joint session of Congress cautioning the nation that there were "struggles ahead and dangers to face."

   09/21/1792 - The French National Convention voted to abolish the monarchy.

   09/21/1897 - The New York Sun ran its famous editorial that declared, "Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus."

   09/21/1949 - The People's Republic of China was established.

   09/21/1970 - NFL Monday Night Football made its debut on ABC.

   09/21/1981 - The Senate unanimously confirmed the nomination of Sandra Day O'Connor to become the first female justice on the Supreme Court.

   09/22/1776 - Nathan Hale was hanged as a spy by the British during the Revolutionary War.

   09/22/1862 - President Lincoln issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation which declared all slaves in rebel states should be free as of January 1, 1863.

   09/22/1949 - The Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb.

   09/22/1980 - The Persian Gulf conflict between Iran and Iraq erupted into full-scale war.

   09/22/2016 - First Day of Autumn

   09/22/2016 - Autumn Equinox – Wicca, Celtic

   09/23/1806 - The Lewis and Clark expedition returned to St Louis from the Pacific Northwest.

   09/23/1846 - German astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle discovered the planet Neptune.

   09/23/1957 - A white mob forced nine black students who had entered Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas to withdraw.

   09/23/2016 - Shubun no Hi / Autumnal Equinox Day – Shinto

   09/24/1789 - Congress passed the First Judiciary Act which provided for an Attorney General and a Supreme Court.

   09/25/1789 - The first US Congress adopted 12 amendments to the Constitution and sent them to the states for ratification. Ten of those amendments became the Bill of Rights.

   09/25/1897 - Author William Faulkner was born in New Albany MS.

   09/25/1957 - With 300 US Army troops standing guard, nine black children forced to withdraw from Central High School in Little Rock, because of unruly white crowds, were escorted to class.

   09/25/1979 - Evita opened on Broadway.

   09/25/1981 - Sandra Day O'Connor became the first female justice on the US Supreme Court.

   09/25/2016 - Gold Star Mother’s Day

   09/25/2016 - Roi Wangol, Mousindi – Voudon

   09/26/1789 - Thomas Jefferson became America's first secretary of state.

   09/26/1914 - The Federal Trade Commission was established.

   09/26/1950 - UN troops recaptured the South Korean capital of Seoul from the North Koreans.

   09/26/1960 - The first televised debate between presidential candidates, Richard Nixon and John Kennedy, took place in Chicago.

   09/26/1962 - The Beverly Hillbillies premiered on CBS.

   09/26/1986 - William Rehnquist became the 16th chief justice of the US.

   09/27/1779 - John Adams was named to negotiate the Revolutionary War's peace terms with Britain.

   09/27/1954 - Tonight, hosted by Steve Allen, debuted on NBC.

   09/27/1964 - The Warren Commission issued a report concluding that Lee Harvey Oswald had acted alone in assassinating President Kennedy.

   09/27/1996 - Afghanistan's Taliban drove the government out of Kabul and captured the capital.

   09/28/1066 - William the Conqueror invaded England to claim the English throne.

   09/28/1850 - The US Navy abolished flogging as a form of punishment.

   09/29/1542 - Portuguese navigator Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo arrived at present-day San Diego.

   09/29/1789 - The US War Department established a regular army with several hundred men.

   09/29/2016 - Manman Aloumandia – Voudon

   09/30/1791 - Mozart's opera The Magic Flute premiered in Vienna.

   09/30/1868 - The first volume of Louisa May Alcott's Little Women was published.

   09/30/1954 - The US Navy commissioned the first atomic-powered vessel, the submarine Nautilus.

   09/30/1962 - Black student James Meredith succeeded on his fourth try in registering for classes at the University of Mississippi.

   09/30/2016 - Maitresse Délai – Voudon





Online Resource Links

   What ISIS Really Wants - The Islamic State is no mere collection of psychopaths. It is a religious group with carefully considered beliefs, among them that it is a key agent of the coming apocalypse. Here’s what that means for its strategy — and for how to stop it  |  ISIS Claims Responsibility, Calling Paris Attacks First of the Storm  |  Syria Iraq: The Islamic State Militant Group  |  Isis: The Inside Story  |  Frontline: The Rise of ISIS  |  Council on Foreign Relations: A Primer on ISIS Iraq  |  Cracks in ISIS Are Becoming More Clear  |  How ISIS’ Attacks Harm the Middle East

   What it’s like to live on $2 a day in the United States (PDF)

   Check out Today's Front Pages. Each day, you can see the front pages of more than 800 newspapers from around the world in their original, unedited form.

   Whether or not you noticed, the earth's population passed 7 billion a while back. You might enjoy NPR's wonderful video, Visualizing How a Population Grows to 7 Billion.

   Check out the St. Louis Fed's presentation The Financial Crisis: What Happened?. The original video is no longer available but you can view the power point presentation.

   Want to take a survey but not sure how many responses to collect? This Survey Calculator gives you the number for any given population size and desired confidence level. A reverse calculator lets you enter characteristics of an existing survey and gives the confidence interval (±X%) to apply to the results. The Survey System site, sponsored by a survey software company, also gives clear explanations of statistical significance, survey design and related concepts. Also check out 20 Questions a Journalist (and You, too!) Should Ask About Poll Results.

   PBS's 30 Second Candidate allows you to view more political ads than you ever knew existed. Choose the Historical Timeline link to see how political ads have changed over the years. Start with the infamous Daisy Ad that Lyndon Johnson used against Barry Goldwater. Click on Watch Johnson ads. Then click on either the QuickTime link or the Real Video link next to Daisy.

   Check out Political Compass. The site does a good job of explaining political ideologies (although with definitions different from those I use) and gives you a chance to discover your own political philosophy.

   Law Library of Congress: North Korea -- Collection of links to websites on North Korean government, politics and law. Includes legal guides, country studies and links to constitutions and branches of government (where available). Council on Foreign Relations: North Korea -- Background, articles and opinion pieces about North Korea government and politics. Many of the articles focus on North Korea's nuclear program. From the Council on Foreign Relations, "an independent membership organization and a nonpartisan think tank and publisher."

   State of the Union (SOTU) -- The site uses an interactive timeline to provide a visual representation of prominent words in presidential State of the Union addresses by displaying significant words as "determined by comparing how frequently the word occurs in the document to how frequently it appears throughout the entire body of SOTU addresses." The Appendices section describes the statistical methods used. Also includes the full text of addresses.

   Small Town Papers -- This site provides access to scanned images of recent issues of dozens of small town newspapers from throughout the United States. Newspapers are updated periodically, 2-3 weeks after publication. The site also includes a searchable archive (of articles, photos and advertisements), which covers different periods for each paper, some as far back as the 1890s. Access to the archives requires free registration.

   This website serves as a centralized location to learn about the Congressional Research Service and search for CRS reports that have been released to the public by members of Congress. (CRS Reports do not become public until a member of Congress releases the report.) Features a searchable database with more than 8,000 reports, a list of recently released reports, other collections of CRS reports and a FAQ about CRS.

   Stem Cell Research -- See the official NIH resource for Stem Cell Research. In 2005, NOVA aired an overview of The Stem Cell Issue.

   Instances of the Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798 - 2004 -- This report lists hundreds of instances in which the United States has used its armed forces abroad in situations of military conflict or potential conflict or for other than normal peacetime purposes. It was compiled in part from various older lists and is intended primarily to provide a rough survey of past US military ventures abroad, without reference to the magnitude of the given instance noted.

   Government Product Recalls

   Homeland Security Knowledgebase, Homeland Security News and Resources

   If you're worried about retirement, try some of the following sites.
IRS Tax Information for Retirement Plans
        Social Security Retirement Planner
    Retirement Planning Resources from Smart Money

   Keeping the Shi'ites Straight -- Based on the opinion that no story has been more confusing for the Western news media to cover in postwar Iraq than the politics of the country's Shi'ite majority, this article provides a basic outline of Shi'ite religious history. Discusses the Sadr family (Muhammad Baqir as-Sadr, Ayatollah Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr, and Muqtada as-Sadr), Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim and other figures.

   This commercial site presents brief information about dozens of Black Inventors from the United States. Some entries include portraits and images. Also includes a searchable timeline covering 1721-1988. Does not include bibliographic information.

   Annenberg Political Fact Check -- This site describes itself as a nonpartisan, nonprofit, consumer advocate for voters that aims to reduce the level of deception and confusion in US politics. The site provides original articles, with summaries and sources, analyzing factual accuracy in TV ads, debates, speeches, interviews and news releases. Searchable. From the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania.

   White House Tapes: The President Calling -- Three of America's most compelling presidents -- Kennedy, Johnson and Nixon -- bugged their White House offices and tapped their telephones. In this documentary project, American Radio Works eavesdrops on presidential telephone calls to hear how each man used one-on-one politics to shape history. Includes audio, a transcript of the documentary and background information on each president and the tapes.

   The State of State and Local Finances -- New studies afford a state-by-state or city-by-city analysis of fiscal well being. The Year of Living Dangerously -- While leaders in a growing number of states appear to believe they're serving the public good by squeezing government dry, there's little question that minimizing management carries a host of dangers that directly affect the lives of citizens.

   Government Debt by Country Map -- Shows countries' general government gross debt as a percentage of GDP in 2012.

   First Amendment Library -- Provides info on Supreme Court First Amendment jurisprudence,  including rulings, arguments, briefs, historical material, commentary and press coverage.

 Charts the history of the search for intelligent aliens.
Source All about our solar system, outer space and exploration.




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Copyright © 1996 Amy S Glenn    
Last updated:   08/31/2016   2330

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