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Although this site has been created primarily for my students, everyone is welcome. In these pages you'll find many sources of information.

The Online Resources section below has numerous links that are of current interest. For more links to material on just about any topic you're looking for, use the E-Links button above. Linked off of that page are pages containing hundreds of links to sites covering a number of topics.

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Quotes of the Month

The future of this republic is in the hands of the American voter.

~Dwight D Eisenhower

If people don't vote, everything stays the same. You can protest until the sky turns yellow or the moon turns blue, and it's not going to change anything if you don't vote.

~Dolores Huerta

It's heartbreaking that so many hundreds of millions of people around the world are desperate for the right to vote, but here in America people stay home on election day.


The vote is the most powerful instrument ever devised by man for breaking down injustice and destroying the terrible walls which imprison men because they are different from other men.

~Lyndon B Johnson

Bad officials are elected by good citizens who don’t vote.

~George Jean Nathan

Voting is not only our right. It is our power.

~Loung Ung

Nobody will ever deprive the American people of the right to vote except the American people themselves and the only way they could do this is by not voting.

~Franklin D Roosevelt



News of the Month

Why vote when you are just one person among millions? If you care about your future and want the best for your friends, family and others, you should vote in every election. Why? Here are a number of reasons.

Your vote is your voice (and you deserve to be heard). As individuals, we each have very little control over what happens to other people or the world around us on a daily basis. Voting gives us some collective say in how we want to be governed and who gets to make the big decisions that affect our society. Voting expands your personal sphere of control. Not voting is giving your consent to the status quo, essentially saying that you don't care whether anything changes.

A lot more is at stake than just who becomes president. The race for president gets the most attention, but plenty of other crucial positions are contested. The American system of government is built upon a foundation of checks and balances at the local, state and federal levels. The people we elect will either support or oppose key aspects of the president's agenda. Of course, elections aren't just about people. In addition to electing politicians, we vote for the chance to have our voices heard on all kinds of issues that impact our lives and the lives of others. For example, the importance of voting extends to critical issues like:

climate change and other environmental threats

college affordability

criminal justice

foreign policy

gun control

health care


LGBTQ rights

racial inequality

reproductive rights


workers' rights

Your ballot may also include important referendums, propositions or other measures related to major issues at the state or local level.

Young people have the power to change everything. According to one study, 59% of all eligible voters in the US are part of the three youngest generations. Gen Xers, Millennials and post-Millennials (Generation Z) have the ability to transform America simply by voting. Sadly, that opportunity is being squandered, especially by those who are 18 to 24. Only 36% of the 18 to 29 age group voted in the 2018 midterm elections. Just 49.1% of people in the 18 to 24 age group were even registered to vote in 2018. People who are part of America's oldest generations turn out to vote in much higher numbers. And they tend to lean more conservative in their political beliefs than younger people. If you're young and eligible to vote, you need to do your part and encourage your peers to do the same. In an America divided perhaps more than ever, every vote counts, especially those from one of the country's largest and most diverse voting groups.

Climate change threatens everybody's future (including yours). The younger you are, the more likely it is that climate change will directly impact you during your lifetime. Actually, there's a strong chance it already has. Climate change is arguably the greatest threat facing humanity. We're already at crisis levels: Stronger hurricanes, longer wildfire seasons, unexpected floods, severe heat waves, extended droughts, inundated coastal cities and other devastating effects of global warming are becoming the norm. These facts are supported by science. We should vote for politicians who believe in science and want to act urgently to avoid worst-case scenarios.

Higher education is becoming out of reach for too many Americans. We can only protect our democracy if our citizens are educated and have the skills and expertise to pursue meaningful career opportunities. The cost of college keeps rising. And for many students with low or moderate incomes and limited financial resources, most American colleges may be unaffordable, even with student loans or Pell Grants. Policymakers and political leaders at the state and federal levels have the power to make college more accessible and affordable for all Americans. But they won't change things unless we vote for politicians who truly support that cause.

Health care is still a major problem that your votes can help solve. Health may not be important if you're young, but it should be one of the top reasons you vote. After all, you never know when injury or illness might strike. You also probably care about the health of older people in your life. And your future health may be affected by how people vote on the issue today. Although the Affordable Care Act has resulted in more Americans having health insurance, its future is in doubt. And the cost of insurance and drug prescriptions continues to rise for many people. In fact, the US has some of the highest health care costs in the world. A lot of Americans still can't afford to see a doctor or get treated for illness. This problem needs to be solved. We all get older. And nobody should die because they can't afford the health care they need.

You owe it to America's heroes (past and present). Countless Americans have sacrificed their lives or suffered extreme hardship in order to secure our right to vote. That includes military service members, women suffragettes, minority groups and many others at home and abroad who have fought for liberty and civil rights. When you vote, you honor their sacrifices. We must never take our voting rights for granted. They can only be preserved by casting our ballots in every election and guarding against politicians who would seek to suppress the votes of people they don't want to represent.

You'll be seen as a doer, not a complainer. Some people become so cynical about the state of the world and American politics that they never vote. But here's the deal: You can either be a proactive agent of positive change or a passive victim of your own boring pessimism. Yes, change can be slow. Lasting change usually is. You may have to vote in several elections before the things you want start coming to fruition. It takes time for progress to happen, for enough people to see a certain vision and get on board with it. But if you never vote for people who support that vision, it's hard to believe you actually care about it. There is simply no integrity in complaining about something if you don't make the effort to change it.

Other people are depending on you to do the right thing. Your vote can help stop injustice. It can also help lift others up or keep them out of harm's way. After all, lots of Americans are still underrepresented in our democracy. And this nation works best when we look out for each other. Voting gives you the opportunity to amplify the voices of those who desperately want and need to be heard. Plus, voting for the interests of those who are marginalized or need a helping hand can be more inspiring than simply voting for your own narrow interests.

It's your duty to help prevent fascism and tyranny. As an American citizen, you're free to believe what you want. But if you wish to maintain that freedom, you must help defend the country from those who would replace our democracy with an oppressive authoritarian government in which citizens no longer have a voice. We cannot afford to take our liberties for granted. Yet, our low voter turnouts don't bode well for the future of our democracy. When citizens don't vote, it makes it easier for leaders with authoritarian tendencies to gain power. After all, lack of participation in the voting process demonstrates cynicism, ignorance or disinterest - things that aspiring tyrants can exploit for their purposes. Americans who don't participate in our democracy are easier to control and manipulate. Over time, low voter turnout erodes our democracy, leaving us with a government that doesn't represent us. We really are in danger of losing the rights and freedoms we take for granted. Voting is a minor inconvenience compared to the full-on oppression of tyranny. Your vote is your protection.

You're lucky you have the right to vote. Never forget that countless people around the world don't have your privilege. They would die to win the same right to vote that you have. They want the same chance to live with dignity, to have their voices heard. Instead, they are often powerless to change things unless they take up arms in violent revolt. Don't dishonor the hopes, dreams and noble struggles of the oppressed by ignoring your basic rights.

Elections can have severe consequences that last for decades. We can't count on future elections to correct the bad things that may result from the current one. And you certainly can't count on other people to vote the way you expect or want. The results of just one election can produce long-lasting consequences that can't be reversed for a generation or longer. Lifetime appointments to the Supreme Court are just one example. Power begets power. Sometimes, voting for the lesser of two evils is the most important thing you can do. It's better than giving the candidates you most oppose an easier path to victory or a greater mandate if they win.

You probably don't have a good excuse not to vote. You may still think, "Why should I vote when I have perfectly good reasons not to? I have the right to not participate." It's true: Not voting is certainly your right. But unless you are physically or mentally incapable of casting a ballot, your reasons may not stand up to scrutiny, especially in light of everything already mentioned. For the health of our democracy and your own well-being, you need to vote. And don't forget about the power of education. The more you know (and the more you're able to do), the better off you, your community and the nation will be. America is strongest when people like you have the skills to take advantage of the opportunities that are available to them. Our power is in our vote.


Five Steps to Avoid Election Misinformation

A Fake News Survival Guide, Explained by a Librarian

How to Stop the Spread of Fake News for the 2020 Election Campaign

5 Ways to Spot Disinformation on Your Social Media Feeds

Six Steps to a Safe, Trusted Election

Everything Voters Need to Know

How to Vote in the 2020 Election

Everything You Need to Vote

The Last-Minute Guide to Making Sure Your Vote Counts in the 2020 Election

POPSUGAR Election 2020


When We All Vote’s one-stop hub

Use a platform like Outvote to encourage your friends and relatives to vote, via text messages and social media.

The Atlantic explains why the mechanics of American democracy are at meaningful risk of breaking down this year.

NY Times interactive guide to help you register and cast your ballot

Nonprofit VOTE




Then and Now

then and now button   11/01/1512 - Michelangelo's paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel were exhibited to the public for the first time.

then and now button   11/01/1952 - The US exploded the first hydrogen bomb at Eniwetok in the Marshall Islands.

then and now button   11/01/2022 - All Saints’ Day

then and now button   11/02/1783 - George Washington issued his Farewell Address to the Army near Princeton NJ.

then and now button   11/02/1917 - British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour expressed support for a "national Home" for the Jews of Palestine in "The Balfour Declaration."

then and now button   11/02/1930 - Haile Selassie was crowned emperor of Ethiopia.

then and now button   11/02/1948 - President Truman surprised the experts by being re-elected in a narrow upset over Republican challenger Thomas Dewey.

then and now button   11/02/1963 - South Vietnamese President Ngo Dihn Diem was assassinated in a military coup.

then and now button   11/02/1976 - Jimmy Carter became the first candidate from the Deep South since the Civil War to become president.

then and now button   11/02/2022 - Anniversary of the Crowning of Haile Selassie – Rastafarian

then and now button   11/02/2022 - All Souls' Day

then and now button   11/03/1903 - Panama declared its independence from Colombia.

then and now button   11/03/1957 - The Soviets launched Sputnik II, the second manmade satellite, into orbit carrying a dog named Laika who died in the experiment.

then and now button   11/03/1970 - Salvador Allende became president of Chile.

then and now button   11/03/1991 - Israeli and Palestinian representatives held their first ever face-to-face talks in Madrid, Spain.

then and now button   11/03/2022 - National Sandwich Day

then and now button   11/04/1922 - The entrance to King Tutankhamen's tomb was discovered in Egypt.

then and now button   11/04/1979 - The Iranian hostage crisis began as militants stormed the US Embassy in Tehran. For some of the hostages it was the start of 444 days of captivity.

then and now button   11/04/1995 - Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by a right-wing Israeli minutes after attending a peace rally.

then and now button   11/04/2008 - The US elected Barak Obama, its first black president.

then and now button   11/05/1940 - FDR won an unprecedented third term in office.

then and now button   11/05/1946 - Republicans captured control of both the Senate and the House in midterm elections.

then and now button   11/06/1860 - Former Illinois congressman Abraham Lincoln defeated three other candidates for the presidency.

then and now button   11/06/1861 - The Confederacy elected Jefferson Davis to a six-year term as president.

then and now button   11/06/2022 - Daylight Saving Time ends. Clocks fall back from 1:59 am to 1:00 am.

then and now button   11/07/1916 - Republican Jeannette Rankin of Montana became the first woman elected to Congress.

then and now button   11/07/1917 - Russia's Bolshevik Revolution took place as forces led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin overthrew the provisional government of Alexander Kerensky.

then and now button   11/07/1944 - FDR won an unprecedented fourth term in office.

then and now button   11/07/1973 - Congress overrode President Nixon's veto of the War Powers Act, which limits a chief executive's power to wage war without congressional approval.

then and now button   11/07/1989 - L. Douglas Wilder won the governor's race in Virginia, becoming the first elected black governor in US history.

then and now button   11/08/1933 - President Franklin Roosevelt created the Civil Works Administration, designed to create jobs for more than 4 million unemployed.

then and now button   11/08/1994 - Midterm elections resulted in Republicans winning control of the House for the first time in forty years.

then and now button   11/08/2002 - The UN Security Council unanimously approved a resolution giving UN weapons inspectors the muscle they needed to hunt for illicit weapons in Iraq. President Bush said the new resolution presented the Iraqi regime "with a final test."

then and now button   11/08/2022 - US Election Day

then and now button   11/09/1938 - Nazis looted and burned synagogues as well as Jewish-owned stores and houses in Germany and Austria in what became known as Kristallnacht.

then and now button   11/09/1989 - Communist East Germany threw open its borders allowing citizens to travel freely to the West. Joyous Germans danced on top of the Berlin Wall.

then and now button   11/10/1775 - The US Marines were organized under authority of the Continental Congress.

then and now button   11/10/1871 - Journalist-explorer Henry Stanley found missing Scottish missionary David Livingstone in central Africa.

then and now button   11/10/1928 - Emperor Hirohito was enthroned in Japan.

then and now button   11/10/1954 - The Iwo Jima Memorial was dedicated in Arlington VA.

then and now button   11/10/1982 - The Vietnam Veterans Memorial welcomed its first visitors in Washington DC.

then and now button   11/10/2022 - The US Marine Corps Birthday

then and now button   11/11/1620 - Forty-one Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower, anchored off Massachusetts, signed a compact calling for a "body politick."

then and now button   11/11/1831 - Former slave Nat Turner, who had led a violent insurrection, was executed in Jerusalem VA.

then and now button   11/11/1921 - President Harding dedicated the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington National Cemetery.

then and now button   11/11/2022 - Veterans Day

then and now button   11/11/2022 - Martinmas – Christian

then and now button   11/12/1942 - The WWII naval Battle of Guadalcanal began. The Americans won a major victory over the Japanese.

then and now button   11/13/1789 - Benjamin Franklin wrote in a letter to a fried, "In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes."

then and now button   11/13/1927 - The Holland Tunnel opened to the public, providing access between New York City and New Jersey beneath the Hudson River.

then and now button   11/13/1940 - The Walt Disney animated movie Fantasia had its world premiere in New York.

then and now button   11/13/1942 - The minimum draft age was lowered from 21 to 18.

then and now button   11/13/1956 - The Supreme Court struck down laws calling for racial segregation on public buses.

then and now button   11/13/1982 - The Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington DC.

then and now button   11/14/1851 - Herman Melville's Moby Dick was first published.

then and now button   11/14/1922 - The BBC began its domestic radio service.

then and now button   11/15/1777 - The Continental Congress approved the Articles of Confederation.

then and now button   11/15/1889 - Brazil's monarchy was overthrown.

then and now button   11/15/1926 - NBC debuted with a radio network of 24 stations.

then and now button   11/15/1998 - Civil Rights activist Kwame Tume (Stokely Carmichael) died in Guinea at the age of 57.

then and now button   11/15/2022 - Shichi - Go - San (Seven - Five - Three) – Shinto

then and now button   11/15/2022 - Lhabab Duchen – Buddhist

then and now button   11/16/1849 - A Russian court sentenced novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky to death for his alleged anti-government activities. At the last minute, his execution was stayed.

then and now button   11/16/1864 - Killer and arsonist William T. Sherman and his troops began their March to the Sea.

then and now button   11/17/1800 - Congress held its first session in Washington in the partially completed Capitol building.

then and now button   11/17/1868 - The Suez Canal opened in Egypt.

then and now button   11/18/1820 - Navy Captain Nathaniel Palmer discovered the frozen continent of Antarctica.

then and now button   11/18/1883 - The US and Canada adopted a system of Standard Time zones.

then and now button   11/18/1928 - The first successful sound-synchronized animated cartoon, Walt Disney's Steamboat Willie, premiered in New York.

then and now button   11/18/1966 - US Roman Catholic bishops did away with the rule against eating meat on Fridays.

then and now button   11/18/1987 - The congressional Iran-Contra committees issued their final report saying President Reagan bore "ultimate responsibility" for wrong-doing by his aides.

then and now button   11/18/1999 - Twelve people died when a bonfire under construction at Texas A&M University collapsed.

then and now button   11/18/2022 - Mickey Mouse’s Birthday

then and now button   11/19/1863 - President Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address.

then and now button   11/19/1919 - The US Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles.

then and now button   11/19/1977 - Egyptian President Anwar Sadat became the first Arab leader to visit Israel.

then and now button   11/20/1789 - New Jersey became the first state to ratify the Bill of Rights.

then and now button   11/20/1945 - The Nuremberg Trials began as Nazi leaders went on trial before an international war crimes tribunal.

then and now button   11/20/1967 - The US Census Clock ticked past 200 million.

then and now button   11/20/2022 - Christ the King Sunday – Christian

then and now button   11/21/1877 - Thomas Edison announced he had invented the phonograph.

then and now button   11/21/1922 - Rebecca Felton (Georgia) became the first woman to serve in the US Senate. (She filled the vacancy caused by the death of the state's senator and served one day.)

then and now button   11/21/1963 - President John Kennedy and his wife, Jacqueline, began a two-day tour of Texas.

then and now button   11/21/1969 - The Senate voted down the Supreme Court nomination of Clement F. Haynsworth, the first such rejection since 1930.

then and now button   11/22/1718 - English pirate Edward Teach, better known as Blackbeard, died during a battle off the Virginia coast.

then and now button   11/22/1906 - The International Radio Telegraphic Convention in Berlin adopted the SOS distress signal.

then and now button   11/22/1928 - Maurice Ravel's Bolero made its debut in Paris.

then and now button   11/22/1963 - President John Kennedy was shot to death while riding in a motorcade in Dallas.

then and now button   11/22/1975 - Juan Carlos became King of Spain.

then and now button   11/23/1889 - The first jukebox debuted in San Francisco's Palais Royale Saloon.

then and now button   11/23/1936 - Life was first published.

then and now button   11/23/1971 - The People's Republic of China became a member of the UN Security Council.

then and now button   11/24/1859 - Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. It immediately sold out.

then and now button   11/24/1871 - The National Rifle Association was incorporated.

then and now button   11/24/1963 - Jack Ruby shot and mortally wounded Lee Harvey Oswald.

then and now button   11/24/2022 - Martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji – Sikh

then and now button   11/24/2022 - Thanksgiving Day

then and now button   11/25/1783 - The British evacuated NY, their last military position in the US during the Revolutionary War.

then and now button   11/25/1986 - The Iran-Contra affair erupted as President Reagan and Attorney General Edwin Meese revealed that profits from secret arms sales to Iran had been diverted to Nicaraguan rebels.

then and now button   11/25/2002 - President George W. Bush signed legislation creating the Department of Homeland Security.

then and now button   11/25/2022 - Black Friday

then and now button   11/25/2022 - Mangé Yam (fête de la moisson) – Vodún

then and now button   11/26/1942 - Casablanca had its world premiere in NY.

then and now button   11/26/1950 - China entered the Korean conflict by launching a counteroffensive against soldiers from the UN, the US and South Korea.

then and now button   11/26/1997 - Iraqi President Saddam Hussein said he would allow visits to presidential palaces where UN weapons experts suspected he had hidden chemical and biological weapons.

then and now button   11/26/2022 - Day of the Covenant – Baha’i

then and now button   11/27/1901 - The US Army War College opened in Washington DC.

then and now button   11/27/1973 - The Senate voted 92-3 to confirm Gerald Ford as vice president, succeeding Spiro Agnew.

then and now button   11/27/2022 - First Sunday of Advent – Christian

then and now button   11/28/1520 - Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan reached the Pacific Ocean after passing through the South American strait that now bears his name.

then and now button   11/28/1925 - The Grand Ole Opry made its radio debut on station WSM.

then and now button   11/28/1975 - President Ford nominated federal Judge John Paul Stevens to the US Supreme Court.

then and now button   11/28/2022 - Cyber Monday

then and now button   11/28/2022 - Ascension of Abdul-Baha – Baha’i

then and now button   11/29/1864 - The Colorado militia killed at least 150 peaceful Cheyenne Indians in the Sand Creek Massacre.

then and now button   11/29/1947 - The UN passed a resolution calling for the partitioning of Palestine between Arabs and Jews.

then and now button   11/29/1963 - President Johnson named a commission headed by Earl Warren to investigate the assassination of President Kennedy.

then and now button   11/29/2022 - #Giving Tuesday … a global generosity movement unleashing the power of people and organizations to transform their communities and the world. There's something everyone can do to help. If you have time, consider volunteering in your community. If you don't have time, you can donate to a good cause, or simply just be kind to everyone you see.

then and now button   11/30/1782 - The US and Britain signed preliminary peace articles in Paris, which ended the Revolutionary War.

then and now button   11/30/1966 - The former British colony of Barbados became independent.

then and now button   11/30/1981 - The US and the Soviet Union opened negotiations in Geneva aimed at reducing nuclear weapons in Europe.

then and now button   11/30/2022 - St. Andrew's Day – Christian






Online Resource Links

then and now button   How Wobbly Is Our Democracy?

then and now button   What ISIS Really Wants: The Islamic State is no mere collection of psychopaths. It is a religious group with carefully considered beliefs, among them that it is a key agent of the coming apocalypse. Here’s what that means for its strategy and for how to stop it  |  ISIS Claims Responsibility, Calling Paris Attacks First of the Storm  |  Syria Iraq: The Islamic State Militant Group  |  Isis: The Inside Story  |  Frontline: The Rise of ISIS  |  Council on Foreign Relations: A Primer on ISIS  |  Cracks in ISIS Are Becoming More Clear  |  How ISIS’ Attacks Harm the Middle East Timeline: the Rise, Spread and Fall of the Islamic State

then and now button   What it’s like to live on $2 a day in the United States (PDF)

then and now button   Check out Today's Front Pages. Each day, you can see the front pages of more than 800 newspapers from around the world in their original, unedited form.

then and now button   Whether or not you noticed, the earth's population passed 7 billion a while back. You might enjoy NPR's wonderful video, Visualizing How a Population Grows to 7 Billion.

then and now button   Check out the St. Louis Fed's presentation The Financial Crisis: What Happened?. The original video is no longer available but you can view the power point presentation.

then and now button   Want to take a survey but not sure how many responses to collect? This Survey Calculator gives you the number for any given population size and desired confidence level. A reverse calculator lets you enter characteristics of an existing survey and gives the confidence interval (±X%) to apply to the results. The Survey System site, sponsored by a survey software company, also gives clear explanations of statistical significance, survey design and related concepts. Also check out 20 Questions a Journalist (and You, too!) Should Ask About Poll Results.

then and now button   PBS's 30 Second Candidate allows you to view more political ads than you ever knew existed. Choose the Historical Timeline link to see how political ads have changed over the years. Start with the infamous Daisy Ad that Lyndon Johnson used against Barry Goldwater. Click on Watch Johnson ads. Then click on either the QuickTime link or the Real Video link next to Daisy.

then and now button   Check out Political Compass. The site does a good job of explaining political ideologies (although with definitions different from those I use) and gives you a chance to discover your own political philosophy.

then and now button   Law Library of Congress: North Korea: Collection of links to websites on North Korean government, politics and law. Includes legal guides, country studies and links to constitutions and branches of government (where available). Council on Foreign Relations: North Korea: Background, articles and opinion pieces about North Korea government and politics. Many of the articles focus on North Korea's nuclear program. From the Council on Foreign Relations, "an independent membership organization and a nonpartisan think tank and publisher."

then and now button   State of the Union (SOTU): The site uses an interactive timeline to provide a visual representation of prominent words in presidential State of the Union addresses by displaying significant words as "determined by comparing how frequently the word occurs in the document to how frequently it appears throughout the entire body of SOTU addresses." The Appendices section describes the statistical methods used. Also includes the full text of addresses.

then and now button   Small Town Papers: This site provides access to scanned images of recent issues of dozens of small town newspapers from throughout the United States. Newspapers are updated periodically, 2-3 weeks after publication. The site also includes a searchable archive (of articles, photos and advertisements), which covers different periods for each paper, some as far back as the 1890s. Access to the archives requires free registration.

then and now button   This website serves as a centralized location to learn about the Congressional Research Service and search for CRS reports that have been released to the public by members of Congress. (CRS Reports do not become public until a member of Congress releases the report.) Features a searchable database with more than 8,000 reports, a list of recently released reports, other collections of CRS reports and a FAQ about CRS.

then and now button   Stem Cell Research: See the official NIH resource for Stem Cell Research. In 2005, NOVA aired an overview of The Stem Cell Issue.

then and now button   Instances of the Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798 - 2020: This report lists hundreds of instances in which the United States has used its armed forces abroad in situations of military conflict or potential conflict or for other than normal peacetime purposes. It was compiled in part from various older lists and is intended primarily to provide a rough survey of past US military ventures abroad, without reference to the magnitude of the given instance noted.

then and now button   Government Product Recalls

then and now button   Homeland Security Knowledge Base

then and now button   If you're worried about retirement, try some of the following sites.
        IRS Tax Information for Retirement Plans
        Social Security Retirement Planner
        Retirement Planning Resources from Smart Money

then and now button   Keeping the Shi'ites Straight Based on the opinion that no story has been more confusing for the Western news media to cover in postwar Iraq than the politics of the country's Shi'ite majority, this article provides a basic outline of Shi'ite religious history. Discusses the Sadr family (Muhammad Baqir as-Sadr, Ayatollah Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr, and Muqtada as-Sadr), Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim and other figures.

then and now button   This commercial site presents brief information about dozens of Black Inventors from the United States. Some entries include portraits and images. Also includes a searchable timeline covering 1721-1988. Does not include bibliographic information.

then and now button   Annenberg Political Fact Check: This site describes itself as a nonpartisan, nonprofit, consumer advocate for voters that aims to reduce the level of deception and confusion in US politics. The site provides original articles, with summaries and sources, analyzing factual accuracy in TV ads, debates, speeches, interviews and news releases. Searchable. From the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania.

then and now button   White House Tapes: The President Calling: Three of America's most compelling presidents -- Kennedy, Johnson and Nixon -- bugged their White House offices and tapped their telephones. In this documentary project, American Radio Works eavesdrops on presidential telephone calls to hear how each man used one-on-one politics to shape history. Includes audio, a transcript of the documentary and background information on each president and the tapes.

then and now button   The State of State and Local Finances: New studies afford a state-by-state or city-by-city analysis of fiscal well being. The Year of Living Dangerously: While leaders in a growing number of states appear to believe they're serving the public good by squeezing government dry, there's little question that minimizing management carries a host of dangers that directly affect the lives of citizens.

then and now button   Government Debt by Country Map: Shows countries' general government gross debt as a percentage of GDP in 2012.

then and now button   First Amendment Library: Provides info on Supreme Court First Amendment jurisprudence,  including rulings, arguments, briefs, historical material, commentary and press coverage.

Midterm 2022 Elections




Community Service

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use this Community link or the link at the top of the page.
The link will take you to a list of the topics I currently have available.
To schedule a date or for more information, feel free to contact me at




Copyright © 1996 Amy S Glenn
Last updated:   11/02/2022  1415

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